Special lipid-based diets alleviate cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease independent of brain amyloid deposition

This large preclinical study compared three experimental fish-oil based diets against a control diet with same total amount of lipids in APP/PS1 mice modeling Alzheimer’s disease (AD). One diet had only the fish-oil base as supplement, the second plant sterols and the third was composed of Fortasyn, a dietary supplement with phopholipids, uridine monophosphate, B-vitamins and antioxidants. Mice received the experimental diets throughout their adult life (5 – 13 months).
In a spatial memory test APP/PS1 mice on the Fortasyn diet performed like with-type controls. All three experimental diets improved performance in an odor memory task. Only plant sterol diet reduced brain levels of amyloid-beta peptide that is though to be the main culprit in AD. However, its expected positive effect on memory was compromized by increased production of reactive oxygen species in the brain. These data demonstrate the treatment potential of lipid-based diets in an early stage of the disease but also that small modifications in the diet composition may drastically alter their effect on various disease processes underlying AD.

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