17.03.2015, 7β-Hydroxysitosterol crosses the blood-brain barrier more favored than its substrate sitosterol in ApoE-/- mice.

STEROIDS [Epub ahead of print]

Hans-Frieder Schött, Constanze Husche, Charlott M. Miller, Florence O. McCarthy, Ulrich Laufs, Oliver Weingärtner, and Dieter Lütjohann

Highly purified sitosterol, cholesterol, 7β-OH-sitosterol, and 7β-OH-cholesterol were intraperitoneally injected in ApoE knock-out mice in a time period of four weeks. We could obtain new insights on the distribution of the applied compounds in liver, brain, and arterial wall tissue as well as on their impact on surrogate markers of cholesterol biosynthesis and absorption. Additionally, new information about the transport of phytosterols and oxyphytosterols across the blood-brain barrier could be gained.

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17.02.2015, Validation of an isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for combined analysis of oxysterols and oxyphytosterols in serum samples.

STEROIDS [Epub ahead of print]

Hans-Frieder Schött and Dieter Lütjohann

An isotope dilution gas-chromatography-mass selective detector method for combined determination of 7-oxygenated cholesterol, campesterol, and sitosterol as well as 4β-, 24(S)-, 25-, 27-OH-cholesterol was developed and validated. This new method allows oxysterol determination in excellent performance and reduced artefact formation. The new validated method will enable for reliable oxysterols results and guarantees a valuable progress in oxysterol research.

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01.02.2015, 2003-2013: A Decade of Body Mass Index, Alzheimer's Disease, and Dementia

J Alzheimers Dis. 2015, 43(3):739-55.

Emmerzaal TL, Kiliaan AJ, Gustafson DR.

Overweight and obesity have been shown to increase risk for dementia. To understand this better, we evaluated all epidemiologic studies published between 2003 and 2013 that reported on an association between body mass index (BMI) and dementia.  We selected 2003 as a starting point, since this is when the first report came out on this important association. In general, mid-life overweight or obese measures based on BMI were associated with late-life risk of dementia in approximately 50% of published associations.  In contrast, late-life measures of BMI showed overweight to be protective and obesity to not be associated with dementia risk. A snapshot of these mid-life and late-life BMI and dementia associations illustrates the changing relationship between BMI and dementia over the life course.

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01.01.2015, Impact of fatty acids on brain circulation, structure and function.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015 Jan;92:3-14.

Haast RA, Kiliaan AJ.

The use of dietary intervention has evolved into a promising approach to prevent the onset and progression of brain diseases. Promising results of intake of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-LCPUFAs),  are found regarding to the protection of the brain circulation and the brain cells and connections between brain area and cognitive functioning. Contrary, studies investigating diets high in saturated fats provide opposite results, which may eventually lead to diminished brain function and structure. This paper will review in vivo research conducted on the effects of ω3 LCPUFAs and saturated fatty acids on integrity (circulation, structure and function of the brain) of the young, aging and diseased brain.

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18.12.2014, Impact of DHA on metabolic diseases from womb to tomb.

Mar Drugs. 2014 Dec 18;12(12):6190-212

Arnoldussen IA, Kiliaan AJ

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), are important for human health during life. We especially focus on the omega-3 LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which is abundantly present in fish. Adequate DHA levels are essential during neurodevelopment and important for brain functions throughout life but they are also important in cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus type 2.  All of these are risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Intake of DHA also reduces incidence of both stroke and atherosclerosis, and diabetes prevalence. These findings are discussed in the light of different stages in the human life cycle: childhood, adolescence, adulthood and in later life. From this review, it can be concluded that DHA supplementation is able to inhibit obesity and cardiovascular disease. DHA could therefore be a dietary protector against these diseases during a person’s entire life.

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